Deploying A Java App In Kubernetes

Deploying a Java App in Kubernetes

This article will tell you how to install minikube and use it for deploying a sample application. It will also tell you how to build a Docker image and run it.

Kubernetes or k8s is an open source, extensible and portable container orchestration platform developed by Google that offers declarative configuration and automation for deployment. It has become one of the most popular tools for DevOps practices because of its capabilities and features for deployment, management, and scaling applications in Kubernetes clusters. We can create a Kubernetes cluster in an on-premise environment as well as on private and public clouds. The public cloud provides managed services for Kubernetes. Google Cloud Platform has Google Kubernetes Engine, AWS has Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Services (EKS) and Azure has Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) for managing Kubernetes clusters in a cloud environment.

In this article, we will use minikube for sample application deployment. minikube is a tool that is used to run Kubernetes locally. It runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster so that hands-on work can be done on Kubernetes for daily software development.

Some of the important commands that we are going to use in this article are listed below.

Description Command
Get Kubectl version kubectl version
Get details on Kubernetes cluster kubectl cluster-info
Get details about a node kubectl describe nodeName
Get details about a pod kubectl describe podName
List of all pods kubectl get pods
List of all services kubectl get services
List of all deployments kubectl get deployments


You will need the following to install minikube on the Ubuntu operating system.

Container or virtual machine manager Architectures
  • Docker, QEMU, Hyperkit, Hyper-V, KVM, Parallels, Podman, VirtualBox, or VMware Fusion/Workstation
  • 2 CPUs or more
  • 2GB of free memory
  • 20GB of free disk space


Go to Settings and click on the About tab to verify the Ubuntu version.

Next we will install minikube on the Ubuntu operating system.Figure 1: Start minikube cluster

Minikube installation on Ubuntu 22.04.1 LTS

To install the latest minikube stable release on Ubuntu 22.04.1 LTS execute the following commands:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ curl -LO

% Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current
Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed
100 26.1M 100 26.1M 0 0 1430k 0 0:00:18 0:00:18 --:--:-- 1231k

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ sudo dpkg -i minikube_latest_amd64.deb

Selecting previously unselected package minikube.
(Reading database ... 204624 files and directories currently installed.)

Preparing to unpack minikube_latest_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking minikube (1.28.0-0) ...
Setting up minikube (1.28.0-0) …

Start your minikube cluster. If you face any issues, stop the cluster, delete it and execute the minikube start command again.

Now verify the existing status of minikube by using the minikube status command:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ minikube status

We have installed minikube and verified it. The next step is to verify the Java and Maven installation, create a Docker image, and deploy it using Kubernetes YAML in the minikube cluster.

Java and Maven installation

We need Java and Maven to build a package file for the sample application that we are going to run in a Docker container. Install Java and Maven in the Ubuntu OS. Once installation is completed successfully, verify the Java version using the java –version command.

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ java -version
openjdk version “11.0.17” 2022-10-18
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 11.0.17+8-post-Ubuntu-1ubuntu222.04)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 11.0.17+8-post-Ubuntu-1ubuntu222.04, mixed mode, sharing)

Verify the Maven version using the mvn -version command:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ mvn –version
Apache Maven 3.6.3
Maven home: /usr/share/maven
Java version: 11.0.17, vendor: Ubuntu, runtime: /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64
Default locale: en_IN, platform encoding: UTF-8
OS name: “linux”, version: “5.15.0-53-generic”, arch: “amd64”, family: “unix”

We will use PetClinic as a sample application. PetClinic is a Spring Boot application built using Maven or Gradle. In this article we will build a JAR file and deploy it in a minikube cluster. Visit to know more. Copy the GitHub repository URL from the above URL and use the git clone command to clone it locally:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ git clone

Once the source code is available, go to the root of the project using the change directory command as given below, and execute the ./mvnw package command to create a JAR file. At first execution it will try to download multiple dependencies and hence will take some time to complete execution.

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ cd spring-petclinic
osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop/spring-petclinic$ ./mvnw package
Warning: JAVA_HOME environment variable is not set.
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
Downloading from spring-snapshots:
Downloaded from central: (3.1 kB at 6.0 kB/s)
[INFO] ------------< org.springframework.samples:spring-petclinic >------------
[INFO] Building petclinic 2.7.3
[INFO] --------------------------------[ jar ]---------------
[INFO] Building jar: /home/osfy/Desktop/spring-petclinic/target/spring-petclinic-2.7.3.jar
[INFO] --- spring-boot-maven-plugin:2.7.3:repackage (repackage) @ spring-petclinic ---
[INFO] Replacing main artifact with repackaged archive
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 15:36 min
[INFO] Finished at: 2022-12-01T00:56:56+05:30
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------

Observe the output of Maven command execution where it says Building jar: /home/osfy/Desktop/spring-petclinic/target/spring-petclinic-2.7.3.jar.

Now it is confirmed that we have a JAR file ready. The next step is to create a Docker image that contains the JAR file and runtime environment.

So, what is a Dockerfile? Well, it’s nothing but the text document that provides build instructions to build the image with your application package.

FROM openjdk:11
COPY target/spring-petclinic-2.7.3.jar app.jar
ENTRYPOINT [“java”,”-jar”,”/app.jar”]

Place the Dockerfile in the project root directory. Now, it is time to build a Docker image.
For testing locally with minikube, we should point the local Docker daemon to the minikube internal Docker registry, and build the image to install it in the minikube cluster: eval $(minikube docker-env).

Building a Docker image and running a container

Execute the sudo docker image build -t petclinic:latest command from the project root directory.

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ cd spring-petclinic/
osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop/spring-petclinic$ ls
build.gradle docker-compose.yml Dockerfile gradle gradlew gradlew.bat LICENSE.txt mvnw mvnw.cmd pom.xml settings.gradle src target
osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop/spring-petclinic$ docker image build -t petclinic:latest .

The output screen will show you the successful execution of the command.

Successfully built 6f78e1ae176e
Successfully tagged petclinic:latest

Now verify that the PetClinic image is available while you execute the docker images command.

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop/spring-petclinic$ docker images

petclinic latest 6f78e1ae176e 6 minutes ago 707MB v1.25.3 0346dbd74bcb 7 weeks ago 128MB v1.25.3 6d23ec0e8b87 7 weeks ago 50.6MB v1.25.3 603999231275 7 weeks ago 117MB v1.25.3 beaaf00edd38 7 weeks ago 61.7MB
openjdk 11 47a932d998b7 4 months ago 654MB 3.8 4873874c08ef 5 months ago 711kB 3.5.4-0 a8a176a5d5d6 6 months ago 300MB v1.9.3 5185b96f0bec 6 months ago 48.8MB 3.6 6270bb605e12 15 months ago 683kB v5 6e38f40d628d 20 months ago 31.5MB

We will use the Docker images available in the local environment and not from the public or private Docker registry. So set imagePullPolicy value to Never in the YAML file. Here is the YAML file (for deployment and service) to deploy a sample application in the minikube cluster:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
creationTimestamp: null
app: petclinic
name: petclinic
replicas: 1
app: petclinic
strategy: {}
creationTimestamp: null
app: petclinic
- image: petclinic:latest
name: petclinic
resources: {}
imagePullPolicy: Never
status: {}
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
name: petclinic
type: LoadBalancer
app: petclinic
- protocol: TCP
port: 8080
targetPort: 8080

Use the kubectl apply command to create service and deployment available in the YAML file.

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ kubectl apply -f petclinic-deployment.yaml
deployment.apps/petclinic created
service/petclinic created

The minikube tunnel runs as a process. It helps to expose the Load Balancer Service type. We need to run the minikube tunnel command in a separate terminal so the load balancer continues to run until we press CTRL + C. It helps to create a network route on the host. Open a new terminal window or a tab and execute the minikube tunnel command:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ minikube tunnel
[sudo] password for osfy:
machine: minikube
pid: 21648
route: ->
minikube: Running
services: [petclinic]
minikube: no errors
router: no errors
loadbalancer emulator: no errors
machine: minikube
pid: 21648
route: ->
minikube: Running
services: []
minikube: no errors
router: no errors
loadbalancer emulator: no errors

Let’s verify services first:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ kubectl get services

kubernetes ClusterIP <none> 443/TCP 13h
petclinic LoadBalancer 8080:30768/TCP 118s

Now let’s verify deployments:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ kubectl get deployments

petclinic 1/1 1 1 5m3s

Next, let’s verify pods:

osfy@ubuntu-22-04-1-lts:~/Desktop$ kubectl get pods

petclinic-686f5d46c8-9qsxb 1/1 Running 0 4m56s

Visit the localhost:8080 in the browser and our sample application is ready (Figure 2).

Figure 2: PetClinic home page
Figure 2: PetClinic home page

Figure 3 shows the verification of the minikube dashboard.

Figure 3: minikube dashboard
Figure 3: minikube dashboard

Refer to Figure 4 for verification of workloads with respect to deployments, pods, and replica sets.

Figure 4: minikube workloads
Figure 4: minikube workloads

Click on Pods and go to the PetClinic Pod to verify details about it (Figure 5).

Figure 5: PetClinic Pod in minikube dashboard
Figure 5: PetClinic Pod in minikube dashboard

Verify the PetClinic Service in the Services section (refer Figure 6).

Figure 6: PetClinic Service in minikube dashboard
Figure 6: PetClinic Service in minikube dashboard

Verify the PetClinic Deployment in the Deployments section. Check the pod status in the same section as seen in Figure 7.

Figure 7: PetClinic Deployment in minikube dashboard
Figure 7: PetClinic Deployment in minikube dashboard

The Nodes section gives you details on CPU and memory consumption. It also gives you details on all the pods deployed. Check the PetClinic Pod in the same list.

Figure 8: PetClinic Pod in Nodes section
Figure 8: PetClinic Pod in Nodes section

With this, we have completed a sample application deployment in minikube successfully. Hope you enjoyed the learning in this simple ‘how to’ article.


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