Let’s go over the terminology first. “Authentication” is the process that determines if you are who you claim to be. If authentication succeeds, the system can associate a valid username with your connection or session. If it fails, the whole operation is aborted. “Authorisation” is the next step, during which the system tries to decide if you have the right to do what you are attempting to do.
From a security perspective, there is a good case to be made for “outsourcing” authentication to an external tool or library, and not making it part of the core product. Not everyone can, or should, be writing crypto software. The best algorithm can be compromised by a weak implementation — something that would be much more easily caught by a community of developers dedicated to cryptography and authentication, rather than a team centred around version control.
As a result, Git devolves the authentication decision to SSH or httpd (in normal server-client usage). Of course, authorisation is where all the fun is. You cannot easily “outsource” it completely, because it’s not just about “who you are” but also “what are you trying to do” that affects authorisation.
A central server for a DVCS
Because Git is a distributed version control system (VCS), there is no need for a central server — it is quite easy for developers in small teams to simply pull from each other, and work. However, while a central server is not a technical need, it is often convenient to make it an administrative requirement.
It’s quite easy to set up a central server for a few developers to work together on, using UNIX group memberships and permissions to manage access at a very broad level. You just add all the relevant users to one group (say, dev), and give that group ownership of the repository. You can do this all with
git init --shared, and a few invocations of
usermod. This will allow all users the same access to all the repos.
In reality (especially in a corporate setup), when the number of repos and the number of developers grow, there will be pressure to set up more fine-grained access control. In theory, you can still do it using UNIX groups, but the model starts to break down — becoming cumbersome, fragile, and very difficult to audit/review.
Worse, you have no real way of ensuring that some people have read-only access, while others have read-write access. You can get that if you start using POSIX ACLs, but it’s still painful — POSIX ACLs have a lot more power, but aren’t any friendlier than
Thus, the most common use for Gitolite is simply to help administer a central server without going insane! Here’s an example, with two repositories and five developers:
repo r1 RW = alice R = bob carol repo r2 RW = alice bob R = eve mallory
As you can see, this is very easy to write, maintain (when changes are needed), read, and review. It’s also obvious that this can effortlessly scale to dozens of repos and users.
However, that’s not the end of it. Sometimes the number of repos is quite large, but all have a uniform set of access rules, so you can use the following code:
repo git gitolite linux rakudo RW = alice bob carol R = eve mallory
If the number gets even higher, you can try the code below:
@open = git gitolite @open = linux rakudo # add as many more lines like this as you want; they accumulate @devs = alice bob carol repo @open RW = @devs R = eve mallory
The basic syntax is simple and clean. And it gets even better: you can specify access in bits and pieces, even if they overlap. Let’s say some access needs are best grouped based on the repos, some by username, and some by both. You just do all of them, and Gitolite will combine all the access lists correctly! Here’s an example (assume the groups are already defined):
# all bosses have read access to all projects repo @open @closed @topsecret R = @bosses # everyone has read access to "open" projects repo @open R = @bosses @devs @interns
If you notice that
@bosses are given read access to
@open via both rules, do not worry that this causes some duplication or inefficiency, because it doesn’t.
Going out on a limb
Once your project really starts using Git, you will have branches and tags — and you will need to control how they are dealt with. Here’s one possible setup:
@QA_team = QA_guy QA_gal @Lead_devs = sitaram dilbert @devs = @Lead_devs alice wally repo foo RW refs/tags/v[0-9] = @QA_team RW+ = @Lead_devs RW dev/ = @devs
The language is simple enough that you can understand what it is doing without being told. A member of the QA team can only push tags which start with
v, followed by a digit (optionally followed by anything else). A lead dev can push or rewind (a.k.a. “force push”; you may know about the
+ syntax in Git push) just about anything. (When you don’t supply a pattern between the permissions and the
= sign, it means it matches any ref.) A normal dev can only push branches whose name starts with
Gitolite processes rules in sequence, looking at rules where the user and the branch/tag being written, match. It stops when the permission matches the attempted operation (which is either
W for a fast-forward push or a
+ for a rewind), or a “deny” is found.
That might sound complicated, so let’s look at some examples. Let’s assume that you wanted to establish that “ any dev can do anything to any branch, except that only lead devs can push to master ”. To implement that, you have to use the “deny” rule, denoted by a minus sign:
repo foo RW+ master = @Lead_devs # line 1 - master = @devs # line 2 RW+ = @devs # line 3
When a normal dev (not a lead dev) tries to write to “master”, the first matching rule is Line 2, which says “deny”. If a lead dev tries it, though, Line 1 (which comes before Line 2) matches, and allows the access. (Just as an exercise, think about what happens if you switch Lines 1 and 2. Since “lead” devs are also members of
@dev, they will be denied any write access to “master” since the deny rule will be matched first!)
How about if you wanted to say, “ any dev can do anything to any branch, except that only lead devs can rewind master,” (i.e., normal devs can now do a fast-forward push to “master”, which they could not do in the previous example)? Here’s how you can accomplish this:
repo foo RW+ master = @Lead_devs # line 1 RW master = @devs # line 2 - master = @devs # line 3 RW+ = @devs # line 4
If a non-lead dev tries to force push to “master”, the first two lines don’t match (he’s not a lead dev so Line 1 won’t match, and if he tries to do an
RW+ it doesn’t match
RW), so they have no effect. The next line does match, and so denies that access. Of course, all this is for “master”; the last line allows any pushes by anyone to any other branch/tag.
As a final example, let’s look at access control based on what files are being changed. Let’s say that junior developers should not be allowed to push changes to a critical module, whose code resides in
repo foo RW+ = @devs RW+ NAME/ = @Lead_devs - NAME/critmod.c = @devs RW+ NAME/ = @devs
I’ll leave this as a tantalising example of what you can do, so you have some incentive to read the online documentation!
Walk on the wild side
The KDE project allows authenticated developers to create personal repositories, which can either be clones of existing KDE project repos, or completely ad-hoc, “scratch” repos for personal tools, scripts, etc. How do they do that? And how do they manage access to those repos? That’s where Gitolite’s “wildcard” feature comes in. It allows the administrator to say “these users are allowed to create new repos whose names match this pattern”. You do not have to do anything special to create such a repo; just clone it as if it already existed, and it will spring into existence, with you as the “owner”. Here’s a slightly modified snippet from the KDE infrastructure team’s Gitolite config file:
repo clones/[^\W][\w.-]*[^\W_]/CREATOR/[^\W][\w.-]*[^\W_] C = @all RW+CD = CREATOR RWCD = MANAGERS RWC = WRITERS RW = @all
As you can see, that is already pretty intuitive; it is easy to guess that using a regular expression as a repo name means all repos that have matching names are affected. You might even guess that the
CREATOR is replaced by the name of the user creating the repo (so any clones I create, for example, will always look like
sitaram cannot change).
The permissions given to special usernames are interesting. The owner can create, delete, or rewind any branch or tag.
MANAGERS can create or delete branches, but cannot rewind them (although you can get around a rewind restriction by deleting and recreating a branch!), and
WRITERS cannot delete or rewind branches. These special “user” names are actually user categories, and the owner can specify who belongs in each category. For example, if I had a repo called
clones/foo/sitaram/bar, I might use the following code:
ssh git@server setperms clones/foo/sitaram/bar READERS wally WRITERS alice asok dilbert MANAGERS pointy_hair ^D
(That’s a literal Ctrl-D there, because the
setperms command takes its data from
RW = @allis a KDE policy — any authenticated user can push changes to any branch of any repo. People in the corporate world may gasp in shock at this, but it is a very good idea for an open source project, because it encourages participation. And it is quite harmless, since RW permissions can never destroy anything, and can always be rewound by the owner (or anyone who has
And that’s basically it. You’ll find all the details in the documentation, especially the required setting in the
rc file, but the basic idea is very simple: the Gitolite administrator decides what rights users and user categories have, and the owner decides who belongs to what category.
Gitolite also comes with a bunch of commands to allow you to create a clone directly on the server, delete it, undelete it up to a certain number of days later, and so on, which can all be enabled by the Gitolite administrator. If you look at the KDE link again, you will notice many such commands, although some of them are very customised from the default versions.
The end result is a system that can be pretty much “self-service” in terms of repos created by users, with access rights managed by themselves (but within broad limits set by the admin), which is very useful for large developer communities.
Wrapping it up
I hope this has sparked a little interest in those of you who’ve been considering Git, but are not sure how to handle access control. Gitolite has many more features; please check the
README and the many documents that come with the source. The best starting point for using Gitolite is https://github.com/sitaramc/gitolite#start.
repo foo RW+ master = @Lead_devs # line 1 – master = @devs # line 2 RW+ = @devs # line 3
can @devs now read the repo or create a new branch of master?