Top 5 NLP Frameworks To Learn In 2024


Explore five advanced NLP frameworks that are redefining language processing and analysis. With LLMs being all the rage, learning these frameworks can give you a competitive edge in the AI job market.

In 2024, staying ahead in AI means leveraging the most innovative tools available. With the advent of LLMs in the previous year, NLP (natural language processing) frameworks have become a crucial tool in an AI engineer’s toolkit. So, I decided to write an article on what, in my opinion, are the five cutting-edge frameworks worth learning in 2024. I avoided adding the usual suspects such as NLTK. If you are familiar with NLP, you already know such frameworks are a given. Instead, this list comprises five lesser known but equally important NLP frameworks to have a hold over.

As the field of NLP continues to expand, driven by advancements in machine learning and a deeper understanding of linguistics, the tools and frameworks used to process and analyse language are becoming increasingly sophisticated.

From harnessing the power of transformer models to exploring the nuances of context in text, each framework presents a unique approach to tackling complex language tasks. Whether you’re an engineer seeking to refine a language model, a researcher pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in linguistic analysis, or just someone fascinated by the interplay of language and technology, these tools are your gateway to the next level of NLP. Let’s get started.

1. Hugging Face’s Transformers

Hugging Face’s Transformers library stands as a cornerstone in the NLP landscape, thanks to its comprehensive suite of features tailored for language processing tasks. Let’s dissect some of its key technical aspects that make it a favourite among engineers.

Model variety and architecture

The Transformers library offers a wide range of pre-trained models like BERT, GPT-2, and RoBERTa, each with unique architectural strengths. BERT excels in understanding context in language, making it ideal for tasks like named entity recognition (NER) and sentiment analysis. GPT-2, on the other hand, shines in text generation with its predictive capabilities.

Data preprocessing

The library simplifies data preprocessing, crucial for NLP tasks. It provides tokenisers that efficiently convert text into a format understandable by the models. For example, the BERT tokeniser handles tasks like lowercasing and tokenising, ensuring the input text is optimally prepared for the model.

from transformers import BertTokenizer
tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained(‘bert-base-uncased’)
encoded_input = tokenizer(“Hello, world!”, return_tensors=’pt’)

Fine-tuning and training

Transformers enable fine-tuning of models on specific data sets, essential for bespoke NLP tasks. This allows engineers to adapt these powerful models to their specific use cases, be it classifying text or generating new content.

Performance and scalability

Lastly, the library is designed with performance in mind. It efficiently handles large data sets and complex computations, making it scalable for industrial applications.

Incorporating Transformers into your NLP project enhances its capabilities manifold. It’s a framework that combines the robustness of state-of-the-art models with the flexibility to adapt to various language processing tasks.

2. spaCy 3.0

spaCy 3.0 blends high performance with an intuitive API. Let’s unpack its standout features that make it a go-to choice for engineers demanding precision and efficiency.

Efficient and scalable pipeline

At spaCy’s core lies its processing pipeline. This pipeline is highly customisable and allows for the seamless integration of various components like tokenisers, taggers, parsers, and entity recognisers. What sets it apart is the ability to add custom components, enabling a tailored NLP solution.

Advanced training and fine-tuning

spaCy 3.0 introduces new ways to train and fine-tune models. With its config system, you have granular control over every aspect of training, from optimiser settings to batch sizes. This flexibility allows for precise model tuning.

import spacy
nlp = spacy.load(“en_core_web_sm”)
doc = nlp(“Apple is looking at buying U.K. startup for $1 billion”)
for ent in doc.ents:
    print(ent.text, ent.start_char, ent.end_char, ent.label_)

Language model efficiency

The introduction of transformer-based models in spaCy 3.0 marks a significant leap. These models bring enhanced accuracy in understanding context and semantics, making tasks like entity recognition and text classification more precise.

User experience and documentation

spaCy’s commitment to user experience is evident in its clear, comprehensive documentation and streamlined API. This focus makes the framework accessible to both novice and experienced NLP practitioners.

Community and ecosystem

spaCy, like Transformers, benefits from a vibrant open source community. This ecosystem continually contributes to its development, ensuring the framework stays on the cutting edge of NLP technology. spaCy 3.0 stands as a testament to thoughtful engineering in the field of NLP. Its blend of performance, customisability, and user-centric design makes it a valuable tool in any engineer’s arsenal.

3. AllenNLP

AllenNLP, developed by the Allen Institute for AI, is a framework that’s carving a niche for itself in the realm of NLP research. It’s built for those who love to push boundaries and experiment with the latest in language understanding and processing.

Modular and extensible design

One of AllenNLP’s key strengths is its modular design. This allows for a high degree of customisation and experimentation. Researchers can mix and match components, trying out different combinations of models, embeddings, and data processing methods to achieve optimal results.

State-of-the-art models and experiments

AllenNLP integrates seamlessly with cutting-edge models like ELMo and BERT, making it suitable for advanced NLP tasks. It is not just about using these models; it’s about pushing them to their limits through innovative experiments and research.

Comprehensive toolkit for NLP tasks

The framework provides tools for a wide range of NLP tasks, including but not limited to text classification, semantic role labelling, and syntactic parsing. Each of these tools is fine-tuned for high performance and accuracy.

from allennlp.predictors.predictor import Predictor
import allennlp_models.tagging
predictor = Predictor.from_path(“”)
predictor.predict(sentence=”AllenNLP is a Python library for NLP research.”)

Focus on reproducibility

AllenNLP places a strong emphasis on reproducibility, a critical aspect of scientific research. It ensures that experiments can be replicated with the same results, enhancing the credibility and reliability of the research conducted using the framework.

Dynamic and collaborative community

The community surrounding AllenNLP is dynamic and collaborative, often involving researchers from academic and industrial backgrounds. This diversity fosters a rich environment for the exchange of ideas and continuous improvement of the framework.

AllenNLP is not just a toolkit; it is a playground for NLP researchers. It offers the tools and flexibility required for pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in language understanding.

4. StanfordNLP

StanfordNLP, emerging from the hallowed halls of Stanford University, represents a unique fusion of linguistic theory and machine learning. It is a framework designed for those who appreciate the intricate nuances of human languages and the power of AI to decipher them.

Deep linguistic analysis

StanfordNLP excels in providing deep linguistic analysis, offering tools for tasks like part-of-speech tagging, lemmatisation, and dependency parsing. This goes beyond surface-level understanding; it delves into the grammatical intricacies of text, making it invaluable for complex linguistic studies.

Multilingual capabilities

One of the standout features of StanfordNLP is its robust support for multiple languages. It’s not limited to English; this framework offers models and tools for a wide range of languages, ensuring its applicability in global contexts.

Integration with neural network models

The framework has embraced the neural network revolution in NLP. By integrating with neural models, StanfordNLP enhances its capabilities, especially in terms of accuracy and efficiency in language processing tasks.

import stanfordnlp‘en’)  # Download the English model
nlp = stanfordnlp.Pipeline() # Initialize the pipeline
doc = nlp(“StanfordNLP provides state-of-the-art linguistic analysis.”)
print(*[f’word: {word.text+” “}\tdep: {word.dependency_relation}’ for sent in doc.sentences for word in sent.words], sep=’\n’)

User-friendly and well-documented

Despite its academic orientation, StanfordNLP is designed to be user-friendly. The documentation is comprehensive and clear, making it accessible even for those new to NLP.

Strong academic community

Born in academia, StanfordNLP benefits from a strong academic community. This ensures that the framework is not only cutting-edge but also grounded in the latest linguistic research and theories.

StanfordNLP is a bridge between the computational efficiency of machine learning and the depth of linguistic analysis. It’s perfect for projects that demand a deeper understanding of language structure and usage.

5. Flair

Flair is the dark horse in the NLP race, distinguishing itself with a unique approach to contextualised string embeddings. This framework is for those who seek to delve into the subtleties of context in language processing.

Contextualised embeddings

The star feature of Flair is its focus on contextualised string embeddings. Unlike traditional embeddings that represent words in isolation, Flair’s embeddings capture the context of each word in a sentence. This leads to a more nuanced understanding and representation of words, significantly enhancing tasks like named entity recognition and part-of-speech tagging.

Combining different embeddings

Flair allows the combination of different types of embeddings — classic word embeddings, Flair’s own embeddings, and even transformer-based embeddings like BERT. This amalgamation results in richer and more powerful text representations.

from import Sentence
from flair.embeddings import FlairEmbeddings, BertEmbeddings, StackedEmbeddings
# Creating a sentence
sentence = Sentence(‘Flair is revolutionizing the way we understand text.’)

# Stacking multiple embeddings
stacked_embeddings = StackedEmbeddings([
# Inspecting the embeddings
for token in sentence:

State-of-the-art in several NLP tasks

Flair has proven its mettle in achieving state-of-the-art results in several NLP benchmarks. It is particularly effective in tasks where understanding the context is key, such as in sentiment analysis and text classification.

Flexible and extensible

The framework is designed for flexibility, allowing users to easily add new corpora, embeddings, or even their own custom NLP models. This extensibility makes Flair a highly adaptable tool for a variety of NLP projects.

Vibrant community and development

Backed by a growing and active community, Flair is continually evolving. Its development is driven by real-world applications and the latest research in NLP, ensuring it stays relevant and effective.

Flair is a potent framework for those looking to explore the depths of contextualised NLP. Its innovative approach to embeddings makes it a valuable asset in the toolkit of any NLP practitioner aiming for a deeper understanding of language in context.

And there you have it – a tour through five of the latest and most innovative frameworks in NLP. Each brings its unique strengths to the table, opening up new possibilities in the world of language processing and understanding.


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